Exhibition during Salone del Mobile 2017 Milano

Project MARS 2030 was completed at the Faculty of Industrial Design Jan Matejko Academy Of Fine Arts in Krakow in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, during the course Design for Extreme Environments by a group of students: Kinga Krężel, Adrianna Paśkiewicz, Sebastian Chojkowski, Piotr Madej, Antoni Skąpski, Wojtek Szkodlarski, Filip Zastawnik, Tomasz Kwolek, Emilia Migas, Tomasz Różak, Michał Maciukiewicz under the supervision of Michał Kracik PhD in 2016. //////////////////// CAUTION! REDUCED GRAVITY ZONE!

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Modular Living Space Concept for The Mars Transit Vehicle

Modular Living Space Concept for The Mars Transit Vehicle

This project is related with on going preparation for the manned Mars mission scheduled for the 2030th. Living in space is a challenging task for humans. Long-duration space travel is associated with serious risks for physical and mental health of a crew. From the psychological perspective, living in a confined environment can cause serious problems including anxiety, depression and personal conflicts. This is caused by many factors which need to be taken into consideration when designing the living space. This concept shows a scheme of space configuration for The Mars Transit Vehicle. These aspects include general space arrangement, the model of moving around the interior base to the main corridor with the greenhouse, as well as solutions improving the configurability of the living space.

Interior architecture & greenhouse

The most important objective when addressing limited space is its configurability allowing for maximum use of individual zones corresponding to the main activities of the crew. This includes sleeping, eating, hygiene, work, as well as exercise. /////////// Main functions of the greenhouse is to bring life into a space disconnected from nature and to perform a study on plants. Extended space with plants and modular characters of the solution allow different plants to be cultivated at the same time. This solution speeds up processes of study on new species of plants and their growth in the space. As additional benefit the crew has a possibility of eating non-processed food which changes their daily routine. /////////// The module is divided into five basic zones which are able to be modified depending on the needs of the crew. /////////// The arrangement of the zones towards each other is logical, based on the observation and analysis of everyday routines at the ISS. Moving around the living space is improved by the main corridor in the form of the ladder-like steps and extra railings for better grip. /////////// This system allows for quick and intuitive passes between zones. In the middle of two lanes of the communication pass, the corridor includes a greenhouse intertwined with an observation window. Based on psychological studies the orientation of the crew towards each other is the same regardless of the activity being performed. There is a possibility to configure the space according to the needs of the crew which include aspects such as privacy and volume.

Piotr MadejAntoni Skąpski
Interior architecture & greenhouse
Morpheus _ Sleeping in Zero Gravity

Morpheus _ Sleeping in Zero Gravity

SPACE BED AND CREW QUARTERS FOR A MARS TRANSFER SPACE CRAFT /////////////// The design of the interior was thought in accordance with a space psychology, to give an impression that quarters are bigger and more spacious. It was also important to clearly indicate an orientation of space (up and down). The side wall of the quarter is build from adjustable lockers, which give astronauts a control of storage space. Moreover, fronts of lockers are in different color, which allows for a personalized arrangement. The main part of the quarter are restraints, which allows for adaptation of position according to astronauts needs. Above there is a pop-up TV, which can be used for work, teleconferences and relaxing. The space allows for personalization, hanging posters, family photos and also taking care of plants. /////////////// Space bed is the closest to the user and resembles a sleeping bag, but is larger and provides Earth-like impression of linen. It is made of materials preclusive of bacterial growth. Additionally, this layer is equipped with sensors to monitor total sleep time, heart rate, temperature, humidity, sounds and motion during sleep. Robotic restraints provide position stabilization during sleep or the sitting position stabilization during work. Additionally, it has built-in massager to stave o lower back pain which occurs in microgravity.

Kinga KrężelAdrianna Paśkiewicz

ORB (Orbital Rotary Bike)

REDESIGNED APPROACH TO SPACE EXERCISES _ This project is focused on reducing weight and size of lower limb exercise machines. ORB (Orbital Rotary Bike) can fully replace the CEVIS system used on ISS. Due to its compact size and lightweight it-reduces costs and space used on the ISS. Unlike CEVIS it can be used not only on Space Station, but also in a short time missions. //////// The main principle of ORB is to generate resistance between the pedals axis of rotation and electromagnetic coil. Pedals are aligned almost like in an ordinary bike, but resistance is generated separately for each foot, so there is no need to hook the foot to the pedal. //////// This device will be attached to the Astronaut without any support, or attachment to the spacecraft. It won’t need any vibration or stabilization system. The device can also be easily tted to train forearms, biceps, and shoulders by changing pedals to ergonomic hand grips. In the further development the workout scheme can also be adjusted to the movement similar to a treadmill.

Wojtek Szkodlarski
ORB (Orbital Rotary Bike)
Washing in space

Washing in space

Despite the technological advance in space industry, there is no difference between daily astronauts clothes and those we are wearing on earth. /////////// The only one is that they don’t have the ability to launder them. Dirty clothes are burned in the atmosphere, and new ones are systematicaly delivered to the ISS along with other cargo. It generates high cost of deliveries and huge amount of fabric wasted. /////////// Our design uses pressurised steam and ultrasounds that allows cleaning and drying clothess in microgravity using less energy and water according to traditional washing methods. Process starts with air suction which keeps clothes in position, then presurised steam washes clothes by pushing water through the bers, the process of washing also involves ultrasounds that help striking the dirt out of the material. The process of drying uses piezoelectric transducers placed in direct contact with wet fabric. By generating high frequency vibrations that atomize water, they turn it into a mist which is being drained through air suction channels.

Emilia MigasTomasz Kwolek

Dining in Microgravity Conditions

THE SYSTEM FOR FOOD PREPARATION AND CONSUMPTION //////////////// Food consumption is an essential activity for all humans. Along with its nutritional bene ts it is a crucial element of psychological and social behavior. Microgravity environments imply several limitations with regards to food consumption in space. //////////////// Crew members are given more choices in composing their meals. Astronauts use dedicated application to start virtual cooking. They choose ingredients, add spices, and observe the process of food preparation. Afterwards meals are automatically laid out in to the eating device. //////////////// The device protects the food from ying away. It is shaped to protect the food but at the same time giving the Astronaut the impression of eating from a normal plate with all the advantages of food smell and texture. //////////////// The bowl has an 8 cm diameter hole which is covered with a pivotal latch. It is easily operated with one nger and allows access inside the dish. Astronauts can eat meals at the table thanks to magnetic stabilization or take the dish to a personal area and eat alone. The selected concept has been prototyped using 3D printing.

Sebastian Chojkowski
Dining in Microgravity Conditions
FOST 2 wastewater recycling system

FOST 2 wastewater recycling system

Currently most devices which are being designed or adopted to 0-g environment, have a very technical, and little user-friendly character. In terms of the visual appearance they bring to mind workshop or hospital environment. /////////// Its technical character fits to the ISS interior which is not user friendly. Considering a long duration space flight (future Mars missions) design of the spaceship interior and its components (products) should require more attention to its visual appearance. Despite functionality and technical reliability of the products, its aesthetics will play an important role for the crew psychological comfort and could have an indirect impact on the mission success. The project focuses on the housing and user interface design for the FOST (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) wastewater recycling system and the rede- sign of the PWD (Portable Water Dispenser) and MELFI (Minus Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS). /////////// The future FOST device nature will resemble the fridge - it will be present in the living space and work automatically 24/7. It’s designed to process the contaminated water (from hygiene activities, laundry, humidity condensate, urine flush) and make it pure again. The ISS PWD’s primary requirement is to provide potable water for the re-hydration of U.S. food packages during meal and snack preparation. /////////// MELFI provides the Space Station with refrigerated volume for storage and fast-freezing of life science and biological samples. /////////// NASA plan to develop an earth version of the FOST, which would serve as household device, therefore it is an additional motivation to consider a need of changing the approach to design of the space craft equipment.

Adrianna Paśkiewicz

Cargo Transfer Bag

IMPROVEMENT OF THE DESIGN OF CARGO TRANSFER BAG /////////// Cargo carried aboard includes every-day-life items like food for the astronauts, personal items, clothes and hygiene equipment as well as maintenance items for the various systems of ISS and science materials for ongoing or new experiments that are conducted aboard the station. The crew of six uses up to 150 CTBs during half-year mission, and bags usually become a waste and are burnt in the atmosphere. But they can be reused on orbit and the most the most promising is short-duration supplemental radiation protection. /////////// The main idea was to connect the function of bag with the system of Water Walls. When the bag is no longer needed for transferring cargo, it can be transformed into at walls. It has two-layered construction connected with Velcro. Between the layers there is the Water Walls system of bags. It is separated into sections responsible for different functions. Some of the covers are removable because some of the bags inside need an access to the light. /////////// One fully efficient system consists of two CTBs, which are situated alternately to ensure the minimum thickness of radiation shield. The side walls of the bags are diagonal to overlap so there are no gaps. Bags can be put on a wall side by side and create a surface of radiation protection. The surface can be successively build during the mission.

Kinga Krężel
Cargo Transfer Bag
Planetary Missions Multi-purpose Tool

Planetary Missions Multi-purpose Tool

Planetary Missions Multi-purpose Tool System was designed to reduce significantly the amount of necessary items which allow us to make the first steps on the surface of the planet. Its construction allows to easily join components being the part of the complex toolset, depending on the type, and purpose of the mission. The system was designed with focus on operational feautures in extreme conditions, which are caused by the space suit, and the sequence of joining components, in which the operator always starts with the handle is designed to support safe and quick assembly of the tool. /////////// The appearance follows tool’s function, and identify the device as user-friendly and reliable. The system designed by the author is a selection of handles, bits and batteries, which allow for flexible configuration the tool. The carrier, which would be integrated with the set is thought to support its functionality. /////////// This example of the heavy duty drilling tool was designed during academic course to represent the idea of modularity, and usability of the system.

MICHAŁ MACIUKIEWICZ

Water Walls System

Space exploration in conditions which don’t give chance for performing bodily functions requires an environment entirely designed by human. A long duration missions are especially challenging. No chance for support also makes the expedition more complicated. /////////// Water Walls is a concept for a largely passive life support system, centered on the application of forward osmosis membranes designed to replace the large, complex, and failure-prone machines than now perform these functions. Water Walls system not only provides filtration of resources (fluids, gases) needed for living but also creates a protective shielding from space radiation and produces a nutrition as an extra benefit. Finding a solution that would be more forward looking and suitable for long duration transits and habitats is crucial when it comes to the general progress of space exploration. System based on passive functions brings very promising vision. /////////// The challenge is to make it really work as a functional system designed as an architecture or a device adaptable to living space such as habitats. /////////// Significant part of the project was to study the flow of the inputs and outputs and defining the seizure of the system. /////////// This design solves a problem of plumbing and packaging the system into cargo bags which allows to use it at the designated area. The advantages of the concept is lightweight architecture and possibility to use it as a double layered radiation shielding.

ANTONI SKĄPSKI
Water Walls System
Fluid processing undergarment

Fluid processing undergarment

In case of emergencies during space flight crew members do not need to be afraid of lacks of water and dehydration. All they need to do is to wear undergarments that will help them to survive until main water filtration is fixed. This specially designed undergarment is one-piece suit that will collect human waste fluids from almost whole body surface and convert it into drinkable water. But what actually are human waste fluids? That is everything that body extracts in fluid form. In case of this project main two are considered: sweat and urine. Both contain massive amount of water (from 96% to 98%) and both can be easily filtered and cleaned of contamination. /////////// Sweat is collected from the surface of skin through material. This happens thanks to combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibres that transport sweat to next layer. Then sweat goes to small catch pocket through its microporous membrane. These pores are big enough so sweat goes through but will not go back when its particles get little bit cooler. Catch pockets are located on almost whole body surface. Then sweat is transported thought catch pockets thanks to small vessels and capillary action that happens thanks to them. Capillary action is an ability of a liquid to ow in narrow spaces without the assistance of (or even in opposition to) external forces like gravity. /////////// Finally sweat gets to the main catch pocket located on chest which is divided in half by semipermeable membrane. This is where reverse osmotic pervaporation process happens. “Clean” side is filled with syrup that attracts water particles and pull them through membrane. Pores are so small that they will not let any contamination go thought. Additional value of this solution is that syrup has caloric load so when user drinks through tubes attached to main catch pockets he is also somehow eating. Urine is collected though external catheter and goes to urine bag located on outer surface of thigh. There it goes thought osmotic pervaporation process. Then joins sweat in smaller catch pockets. Urine goes thought double filtration; for easier cleaning and maintaining as well as for psychological comfort of user.

Tomasz Różak

Multifunctional shower

A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SHOWER CONCEPT FOR LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS ///////////// Personal hygiene in microgravity is a dificult problem. Due to the lack of natural flow of liquids, hygiene activities performed here on earth, are either impossible, or demands special equipment. On the ISS despite technological advancements, the Astronauts currently can't shower, using wet towels instead. Planning for long dura on missions, it seems crucial to propose a viable system allowing for necessary hygienic activities which can highly influence both physical and mental comfort of the crew. ///////////// The system is equipped with an ultrasonic cleaning “sponge” responsible for wetting and soaping the body. This device consists of: synthetic sponge, container for soap, loudspeaker, pilot which can control both sponge functions and other facilities. The sponge is created in 3D printing technology from flexible synthetic material with various texture and structure which can directs water from the sponge. Loudspeaker placed in the middle part of the sponge generates sound waves with adequate frequency helps cleaning the body with soap. After whole activity user puts the device to spe- cial locker where the sponge is being cleaned and the soap is refilled.

Filip Zastawnik
Multifunctional shower

We are hard working team

Design for Extreme Environments _ Faculty of Industrial Design _ AFA Cracow

Mars 2030 team members

Project completed at the Faculty of Industrial Design Jan Matejko Academy Of Fine Arts in Krakow in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, consulted with PhD Jessica Marquez & PhD Jurek Parodi during the course Design for Extreme Environments by a group of students: Kinga Krężel, Adrianna Paśkiewicz, Sebastian Chojkowski, Piotr Madej, Antoni Skąpski, Wojtek Szkodlarski, Filip Zastawnik, Tomasz Kwolek, Emilia Migas, Tomasz Różak, Michał Maciukiewicz under the supervision of Michał Kracik PhD in 2016.

Meet team members
Mars 2030 team members

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POLISH DESIGN. Tomorrow is today

POLISH DESIGN. Tomorrow is today

The MARS 2030 is part of the POLISH DESIGN. Tomorrow is today exhibition organized by the Academic Design Center. Exhibition is presented during Salone del Mobile 2017 Milano and is open 4–8th April.

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Faculty of Industrial Design _ Jan Matejko Academy Of Fine Arts in Krakow _ Poland

WFP KRAKOW